Knee Replacement &
Unicompartmental knee Replacement
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The Normal Knee Joint

The knee is a bicondylar hinge type of joint. The two condyles of the lower end of the thigh bone (Femur) meet the flatter upper end of the shin bone (Tibia). The bone ends are covered by glistening smooth articular cartilage which allows painles movement and weight transmission. In the front of the knee is the knee cap (Patella) the inner surface of which is also covered with cartilage.

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Lying inbetween the femur and tibia are two C shaped Meniscii which act as shock absorbers. The whole knee is surrounded by a ligamentous capsule which holds the bones together. There are four important ligaments which add to stability. The Collateral ligaments on the outer sides and the Cruciate ligaments on the inside.

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What is Total Knee Replacement
The damaged bone ends are shaved off and replaced with an artificial prosthesis.

The femoral end is replaced with a metallic component and the tibial end is replaced with a plastic component. The patella may or may not be replaced.

There are various designs such as Cemented or uncemented- The parts may be fixed to the bone with or without cement.

Ligament sparing or sacrificing- Depending on whether the posterior cruciate ligament is saved.

Rotating or fixed bearing- Depending on the tibial component.

High flexion designs- Allowing full knee bending.

Newer Advances in Knee Replacement
Newer Implants - High flexion designs allow full bending permitting squatting and sitting on the floor.
Computer Assisted Surgery - Use of computers during surgery increase the accuracy of the surgery. A computer assisted tracking device ( based on the same principle as a global positionig system ) is used. Sizing and positioning of the implant is improoved.
Minimally Invasive Surgery - Conventional Knee Replacement is done through a 14 to 20 cm incision. Minimally invasive Knee Replacement is done through a smaller incision which is approximately half the conventional size. This is a more physiological and less traumatic surgery and results in less pain, less blood loss, less hospital stay and less complications.The recovery is faster and better.

More About Knee Replacements
How successful is Knee Replacement? - Knee Replacement is an extremely successful surgery and provides the following benefits:
a. Relief from pain
b. Almost normal movement and function
c. Improved quality of life with ability to do normal activities and pastimes.
What are the risks of Knee Replacement? - Today with advances in surgical techniques the risks are minimal. Precautions are taken to minimise complications.

Complications that can occur are:

  • Risks of anaesthesia and medical problems
  • Clot formation in veins of leg
  • Damage to blood vessels or nerves.
  • Infection: Infection following a joint replacement is highly dangerous. It can occur at any time and infection from any part of the body can spread to the implant. Infection in any part of the body should be treated promptly.
  • For surgical procedures like dental work, prophylactic antibiotics should be taken.
  • If there is fever, discharge, redness or pain in the wound contact your doctor immediately.

“For years I put off doing the operation because I was very scared. The surgery was so painless and recovery so fast, that I wish I had done it earlier.”
- Mrs. R. Shah
both knees replaced
© 2018, Dr Darius Soonawalla.